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Petitioner
Variable Name
petitioner
Spaeth Name
PARTY_1
Normalizations
309 [ view ]

The next four variables identify the parties to the case. "Petitioner" refers to the party who petitioned the Supreme Court to review the case. This party is variously known as the petitioner or the appellant. "Respondent" refers to the party being sued or tried and is also known as the appellee. Variables "petitioner" and "respondent" provide detailed information about all parties, except the identity of the state if a state (or one of its subdivisions) is a party, petitioner and respondent variables note only whether a state is a party, not the state's name. See variables Petitioner State and Respondent State for the name.

The specific codes that appear below were created inductively, with petitioner and respondent characterized as the Court's opinion identifies them.

In describing the parties in the cases before it, the justices employ terminology that places them in the context of the litigation in which they are involved. Accordingly, an employer who happens to be a manufacturer will be identified as the former if its role in the litigation is that of an employer and as the latter if its role is that of a business. Because the justices describe litigants in this fashion, a fairly limited vocabulary characterizes them. Note that the list of parties also includes the list of administrative agencies and officials contained in administrative action preceding litigation.

Also note that the Court's characterization of the parties applies whether the petitioner and respondent are actually single entities or whether many other persons or legal entities have associated themselves with the lawsuit. That is, the presence of the phrase, et al., following the name of a party does not preclude the Court from characterizing that party as though it were a single entity. Thus, each docket number will show a single petitioner and a single respondent, regardless of how many legal entities were actually involved.

The decision rules governing the identification of parties are as follows.

1. Parties are identified by the labels given them in the opinion or judgment of the Court except where the Reports title a party as the "United States" or as a named state. Textual identification of parties is typically provided prior to Part I of the Court's opinion. The official syllabus, the summary that appears on the title page of the case, may be consulted as well. In describing the parties, the Court employs terminology that places them in the context of the specific lawsuit in which they are involved. E.g., "employer" rather than "business" in a suit by an employee; as a "minority," "female," or "minority female" employee rather than "employee" in a suit alleging discrimination by an employer.

2. Where a choice of identifications exists that which provides information not provided by the legal provision or the issue is chosen. E.g., a federal taxpayer or an attorney accused of a crime as taxpayer or attorney rather than accused person, particularly if neither the lawType nor the Issue variable identifies the case as a tax matter or one involving an attorney.

3. Identify the parties by reference to the following list and by the list of federal agencies provided in the adminAction variable.
 
Values:
1 attorney general of the United States, or his office
2 specified state board or department of education
3 city, town, township, village, or borough government or governmental unit
4 state commission, board, committee, or authority
5 county government or county governmental unit, except school district
6 court or judicial district
7 state department or agency
8 governmental employee or job applicant
9 female governmental employee or job applicant
10 minority governmental employee or job applicant
11 minority female governmental employee or job applicant
12 not listed among agencies in the first Administrative Action variable
13 retired or former governmental employee
14 U.S. House of Representatives
15 interstate compact
16 judge
17 state legislature, house, or committee
18 local governmental unit other than a county, city, town, township, village, or borough
19 governmental official, or an official of an agency established under an interstate compact
20 state or U.S. supreme court
21 local school district or board of education
22 U.S. Senate
23 U.S. senator
24 foreign nation or instrumentality
25 state or local governmental taxpayer, or executor of the estate of
26 state college or university
27 United States
28 State
100 person accused, indicted, or suspected of crime
101 advertising business or agency
102 agent, fiduciary, trustee, or executor
103 airplane manufacturer, or manufacturer of parts of airplanes
104 airline
105 distributor, importer, or exporter of alcoholic beverages
106 alien, person subject to a denaturalization proceeding, or one whose citizenship is revoked
107 American Medical Association
108 National Railroad Passenger Corp.
109 amusement establishment, or recreational facility
110 arrested person, or pretrial detainee
111 attorney, or person acting as such;includes bar applicant or law student, or law firm or bar association
112 author, copyright holder
113 bank, savings and loan, credit union, investment company
114 bankrupt person or business, or business in reorganization
115 establishment serving liquor by the glass, or package liquor store
116 water transportation, stevedore
117 bookstore, newsstand, printer, bindery, purveyor or distributor of books or magazines
118 brewery, distillery
119 broker, stock exchange, investment or securities firm
120 construction industry
121 bus or motorized passenger transportation vehicle
122 business, corporation
123 buyer, purchaser
124 cable TV
125 car dealer
126 person convicted of crime
127 tangible property, other than real estate, including contraband
128 chemical company
129 child, children, including adopted or illegitimate
130 religious organization, institution, or person
131 private club or facility
132 coal company or coal mine operator
133 computer business or manufacturer, hardware or software
134 consumer, consumer organization
135 creditor, including institution appearing as such; e.g., a finance company
136 person allegedly criminally insane or mentally incompetent to stand trial
137 defendant
138 debtor
139 real estate developer
140 disabled person or disability benefit claimant
141 distributor
142 person subject to selective service, including conscientious objector
143 drug manufacturer
144 druggist, pharmacist, pharmacy
145 employee, or job applicant, including beneficiaries of
146 employer-employee trust agreement, employee health and welfare fund, or multi-employer pension plan
147 electric equipment manufacturer
148 electric or hydroelectric power utility, power cooperative, or gas and electric company
149 eleemosynary institution or person
150 environmental organization
151 employer. If employer's relations with employees are governed by the nature of the employer's business (e.g., railroad, boat), rather than labor law generally, the more specific designation is used in place of Employer.
152 farmer, farm worker, or farm organization
153 father
154 female employee or job applicant
155 female
156 movie, play, pictorial representation, theatrical production, actor, or exhibitor or distributor of
157 fisherman or fishing company
158 food, meat packing, or processing company, stockyard
159 foreign (non-American) nongovernmental entity
160 franchiser
161 franchisee
162 lesbian, gay, bisexual, transexual person or organization
163 person who guarantees another's obligations
164 handicapped individual, or organization of devoted to
165 health organization or person, nursing home, medical clinic or laboratory, chiropractor
166 heir, or beneficiary, or person so claiming to be
167 hospital, medical center
168 husband, or ex-husband
169 involuntarily committed mental patient
170 Indian, including Indian tribe or nation
171 insurance company, or surety
172 inventor, patent assigner, trademark owner or holder
173 investor
174 injured person or legal entity, nonphysically and non-employment related
175 juvenile
176 government contractor
177 holder of a license or permit, or applicant therefor
178 magazine
179 male
180 medical or Medicaid claimant
181 medical supply or manufacturing co.
182 racial or ethnic minority employee or job applicant
183 minority female employee or job applicant
184 manufacturer
185 management, executive officer, or director, of business entity
186 military personnel, or dependent of, including reservist
187 mining company or miner, excluding coal, oil, or pipeline company
188 mother
189 auto manufacturer
190 newspaper, newsletter, journal of opinion, news service
191 radio and television network, except cable tv
192 nonprofit organization or business
193 nonresident
194 nuclear power plant or facility
195 owner, landlord, or claimant to ownership, fee interest, or possession of land as well as chattels
196 shareholders to whom a tender offer is made
197 tender offer
198 oil company, or natural gas producer
199 elderly person, or organization dedicated to the elderly
200 out of state noncriminal defendant
201 political action committee
202 parent or parents
203 parking lot or service
204 patient of a health professional
205 telephone, telecommunications, or telegraph company
206 physician, MD or DO, dentist, or medical society
207 public interest organization
208 physically injured person, including wrongful death, who is not an employee
209 pipe line company
210 package, luggage, container
211 political candidate, activist, committee, party, party member, organization, or elected official
212 indigent, needy, welfare recipient
213 indigent defendant
214 private person
215 prisoner, inmate of penal institution
216 professional organization, business, or person
217 probationer, or parolee
218 protester, demonstrator, picketer or pamphleteer (non-employment related), or non-indigent loiterer
219 public utility
220 publisher, publishing company
221 radio station
222 racial or ethnic minority
223 person or organization protesting racial or ethnic segregation or discrimination
224 racial or ethnic minority student or applicant for admission to an educational institution
225 realtor
226 journalist, columnist, member of the news media
227 resident
228 restaurant, food vendor
229 retarded person, or mental incompetent
230 retired or former employee
231 railroad
232 private school, college, or university
233 seller or vendor
234 shipper, including importer and exporter
235 shopping center, mall
236 spouse, or former spouse
237 stockholder, shareholder, or bondholder
238 retail business or outlet
239 student, or applicant for admission to an educational institution
240 taxpayer or executor of taxpayer's estate, federal only
241 tenant or lessee
242 theater, studio
243 forest products, lumber, or logging company
244 person traveling or wishing to travel abroad, or overseas travel agent
245 trucking company, or motor carrier
246 television station
247 union member
248 unemployed person or unemployment compensation applicant or claimant
249 union, labor organization, or official of
250 veteran
251 voter, prospective voter, elector, or a nonelective official seeking reapportionment or redistricting of legislative districts (POL)
252 wholesale trade
253 wife, or ex-wife
254 witness, or person under subpoena
255 network
256 slave
257 slave-owner
258 bank of the united states
259 timber company
260 u.s. job applicants or employees
301 Army and Air Force Exchange Service
302 Atomic Energy Commission
303 Secretary or administrative unit or personnel of the U.S. Air Force
304 Department or Secretary of Agriculture
305 Alien Property Custodian
306 Secretary or administrative unit or personnel of the U.S. Army
307 Board of Immigration Appeals
308 Bureau of Indian Affairs
309 Bureau of Prisons
310 Bonneville Power Administration
311 Benefits Review Board
312 Civil Aeronautics Board
313 Bureau of the Census
314 Central Intelligence Agency
315 Commodity Futures Trading Commission
316 Department or Secretary of Commerce
317 Comptroller of Currency
318 Consumer Product Safety Commission
319 Civil Rights Commission
320 Civil Service Commission, U.S.
321 Customs Service or Commissioner of Customs
322 Defense Base Closure and REalignment Commission
323 Drug Enforcement Agency
324 Department or Secretary of Defense
325 Department or Secretary of Energy
326 Department or Secretary of the Interior
327 Department of Justice or Attorney General
328 Department or Secretary of State
329 Department or Secretary of Transportation
330 Department or Secretary of Education
331 U.S. Employees' Compensation Commission, or Commissioner
332 Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
333 Environmental Protection Agency or Administrator
334 Federal Aviation Agency or Administration
335 Federal Bureau of Investigation or Director
336 Federal Bureau of Prisons
337 Farm Credit Administration
338 Federal Communications Commission
339 Federal Credit Union Administration
340 Food and Drug Administration
341 Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
342 Federal Energy Administration
343 Federal Election Commission
344 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
345 Federal Housing Administration
346 Federal Home Loan Bank Board
347 Federal Labor Relations Authority
348 Federal Maritime Board
349 Federal Maritime Commission
350 Farmers Home Administration
351 Federal Parole Board
352 Federal Power Commission
353 Federal Railroad Administration
354 Federal Reserve Board of Governors
355 Federal Reserve System
356 Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation
357 Federal Trade Commission
358 Federal Works Administration, or Administrator
359 General Accounting Office
360 Comptroller General
361 General Services Administration
362 Department or Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare
363 Department or Secretary of Health and Human Services
364 Department or Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
366 Interstate Commerce Commission
367 Indian Claims Commission
368 Immigration and Naturalization Service, or Director of, or District Director of, or Immigration and Naturalization Enforcement
369 Internal Revenue Service, Collector, Commissioner, or District Director of
370 Information Security Oversight Office
371 Department or Secretary of Labor
372 Loyalty Review Board
373 Legal Services Corporation
374 Merit Systems Protection Board
375 Multistate Tax Commission
376 National Aeronautics and Space Administration
377 Secretary or administrative unit of the U.S. Navy
378 National Credit Union Administration
379 National Endowment for the Arts
380 National Enforcement Commission
381 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
382 National Labor Relations Board, or regional office or officer
383 National Mediation Board
384 National Railroad Adjustment Board
385 Nuclear Regulatory Commission
386 National Security Agency
387 Office of Economic Opportunity
388 Office of Management and Budget
389 Office of Price Administration, or Price Administrator
390 Office of Personnel Management
391 Occupational Safety and Health Administration
392 Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission
393 Office of Workers' Compensation Programs
394 Patent Office, or Commissioner of, or Board of Appeals of
395 Pay Board (established under the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970)
396 Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation
397 U.S. Public Health Service
398 Postal Rate Commission
399 Provider Reimbursement Review Board
400 Renegotiation Board
401 Railroad Adjustment Board
402 Railroad Retirement Board
403 Subversive Activities Control Board
404 Small Business Administration
405 Securities and Exchange Commission
406 Social Security Administration or Commissioner
407 Selective Service System
408 Department or Secretary of the Treasury
409 Tennessee Valley Authority
410 United States Forest Service
411 United States Parole Commission
412 Postal Service and Post Office, or Postmaster General, or Postmaster
413 United States Sentencing Commission
414 Veterans' Administration
415 War Production Board
416 Wage Stabilization Board
417 General Land Office of Commissioners
418 Transportation Security Administration
419 Surface Transportation Board
501 Unidentifiable
600 International Entity
Introductory
Identification Variables
Background Variables
Chronological Variables
Substantive Variables
Outcome Variables
Voting & Opinion Variables

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