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U.S. Reporter Citation
Variable Name
Spaeth Name

The next four variables provide the citation to each case from the official United States Reports (US) and the three major unofficial Reports, the Supreme Court Reporter (S.CT), the Lawyers' Edition of the United States Reports(LEd), and the LEXIS cite.

Especially note that these four Reporters are not identical in the cases they report. Slight differences exist among the per curiam and non-orally argued decisions and whether or not multiple citations accompany the lead decision under the original citation. Our listing derives primarily from that of the Lawyer's Edition, supplemented by the US Reports.

Except for memorandum decisions at the back of each volume, we include virtually every decision the Court has made during its four centuries of existence.

Also note that LEXIS cites have the advantage of being unique; the other reporters can have multiple cases on the same page.

Further note that pagination does not invariably proceed chronologically throughout the volumes. Hence, do not assume that because a given citation has a higher page number than that of another case it was decided on the same or a later date as the other case. The only accurate way to sequence the cases chronologically is by indexing or otherwise sequencing each case's date of decision (date of decision).
Identification Variables
Background Variables
Chronological Variables
Substantive Variables
Outcome Variables
Voting & Opinion Variables

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